News and thoughts about 3d printing technology

Types of Printers

Finds from RAPID 2012

I had the opportunity last week to spend a day at the RAPID Conference in Atlanta. The annual meeting of Prototyping Solutions and 3D Imaging Providers is organized by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

The mix of high-end printers and consumer products makes for an interesting portrait of the 3D printing industry. The opportunities are endless.

Here are some highlights I was able to capture on my phone.


Joris from Origo interview

Months back when rapid prototyping technologies were still new to me,  I read this post from now Origo co-founder, Joris Peels, announcing his farewell to i.materialise, the wonderful international 3D printing service.  He has now ventured out to advance the  technology and open it to everyone. He has been kind enough to share his experience at i.materialise with me and how that brought him to create a project like Origo and what it is all about. I would like to thank him for all of his patience and time. I will certainly be keeping an eye on what he does in the coming years.
3DPP: You had your stints at larger 3D printer services and now you have your own project in the works. What are your passions and goals for 3D printing?
Joris: I’m obsessed with 3D printing and I am doing everything I can to let anyone make anything. I love the new i.materialise site and the great and inventive submissions for the Titanium Machine Man Challenge. I also am smitten with designers such as Hugo Arcier and think the 3D printed paperclip the infinite clip is just about the best reinvention.
3DPP:  The internet is a great place to learn about 3D printing but many people I speak to have never heard of 3D Printing. How is that?
Joris: 3D printing is a 20 year old industry that until only a few years ago only catered to business-to-business customers. Only a few designers and product development people in any one company would have any contact with it, and their work was usually secret. The industry has also been hampered by several name changes and terms being used interchangeably such as rapid prototyping, additive manufacturing, free form manufacturing etc.
3DPP: What was your experience at Materialise? I know it has many divisions and international offices. How did it start out?
Joris: I joined them after having worked at Shapeways. Materialise is over 20 years old and was started by its CEO Fried Vancrean. Materialise is the market leader in 3D printing software. Most service bureaus and engineers working in 3D printing use its Magics software to check and repair files. It also develops a lot of medical tools such as software that helps surgeons plan surgeries virtually and produce patient-specific surgical guides. It is also one of the world’s largest service bureaus and has its own Mammoth 3D printers.
 3DPP: Materialise claims the most 3D printers under one roof. What are some machines and manufacturing techniques used? What are some of the more impressive materials that are supported?
Joris: Materialise mainly uses Stereolithography, Fused Deposition Modeling  and Selective Laser Sintering and also has Zcorp, Objet and several other technologies. There are hundreds of 3D printing materials. I really like Ultem which can be used on-board commercial aircraft. Because it is certified and acts as a fire retardant it is actually a functional material. Functional materials, rather than the previous materials that were built to fail or built mainly to look pretty, are the future of the industry.
3DPP: The i.materialise site opens the technology to anyone with a creative design, but not everyone can use CAD software. So how is spreading the technology a function of software learning curves?
Joris: To really know how to 3D model you have to spend two years or so with Rhino or 3DsMax. But, in a shorter time frame you can master Sketchup. This is more limited but much easier to use. In my mind the easiest way for the average person to build is using 3Dtin. 3Dtin lets anyone easily build up an object out of bricks. It works in the web browser and is so easy that we had ten-year-olds making a lot of 3D printed things with it with minimal instruction. 3Dtin is limited, but intelligently limited. In my mind it is the paintbrush for a 3D printed future. Only around 30 million people can 3D model.  3dtin makes 3D printing available to the 2 billion internet users worldwide.
3DPP: This brings us to Origo, your new project. A 3D printer for kids. Really? When can I buy one?
Joris:  Yes. We believe that in the long run kids will be the most successful users of the device. Adults like the idea of 3D printers and there are a lot of very creative adults out there. The vast majority though are not makers yet. For them use 3D printing would consistently require a change in behavior. Kids imagine and make things all the time and are unrestricted in their creativity. They just see Origo as a tool.It’s neither a toy that makes toys nor a learning tool. It’s a machine that makes whatever it is the kid wants to make. It’s a pencil that lets kids create in plastic. It will be fun of course, and kids will learn a lot about designing things, manufacturing and engineering. But, primarily it’s just a tool for expression.
It is to be released in 18 months, we hope. Someone needs to give us a lot of money so we can build this.
3DPP: How does 3Dtin help you get kids into the market?
Joris:  3Dtin is very easy, you simply place blocks and they build up your model. It also has advanced features such as smoothing, templates and advances shapes.Because it is block-based kids can learn by counting blocks. They can know that if they want something to fit in their pencil case it has to be 15 by 20 blocks. They know that if it is to survive this pencil case it will need to be 3 blocks thick. They tried 2 blocks last time and this didn’t work. By thinking in terms of these blocks and using them to engineer new creations they will learn about 3D printing while doing it.
3DPP:So what about calibration and maintenance? Setting up some of the DIY printers out there is usually more complicated than getting it to print. What do you have in mind for Origo?
Joris: Yes, they can be tricky. We hope to reduce all of this through our design.  We hope to minimize the role parents will play but we cannot be completely sure we will be able to do this right now.
3DPP: As someone knowledgeable about the 3D printing world, give us some insight into what you see as the future. Do you think there will ever be storefront printshops? Could this be an education tool for those less familiar with the technology or CAD?
Joris: Yes, to me it is a matter of time before Kinko’s or someone similar steps into this market. It would be very easy to do. FabLabs and Hackerspaces are already “storefront creation shops” with the added benefit of being a place to learn and socialize. This is a very powerful idea that combines the “third place” with access to technology.
3DPP:  From a business perspective how do you imagine 3D printing will be be integrated into future markets? What would you like to see happen?
Joris: I believe that 3D printing will be a 90 billion dollar market by the end of the decade. I believe that for the 1% of things we care most about we will turn to 3D printing to get exactly what we want. Furthermore, some companies will integrate 3D printing into their supply chain in order to produce items to order and enter more specific markets. Certain people will use 3D printers in the home to make what they want and others will turn to services and designers to make things for them. All in all, there will be an unbelievable level of competition, and product development will accelerate across the board. I don’t believe that everyone will have a 3D printer in their homes. Even if we could make everything with 3D printing at home, we wouldn’t. We make the things we care about with 3D printing. Sometimes we can’t be bothered and we’d go to a mass produced product. Sometimes we’d like to outsource our design decisions and follow a brand. For many things we’d simply combine a 3D printed element with a mass produced product that is superior in functionality but inferior in its fit. I do believe, however, that 3D printing will help erode all barriers to entry in manufacturing and design. It will fundamentally alter the relationships we have with our things and change the way everything is made. Even in mass-produced products the use of 3D printing in its design will accelerate and change the way these things are made. 3D printing is, in my opinion, the third industrial revolution and will gradually turn back the tide of the wasteful mass manufacturing paradigm we are now in. By letting you make a thing exactly as you’d want that thing to be and by letting that thing perfectly fit you it will expose the mass manufactured crap that surrounds us as inferior.

The Little Printer That Could

There are many printers popping up in the desktop market and now is the time to see what they are all about. I have taken some time to grab the specs on the popular machines out there. I understand that there may be others, but I have included those with features I want to highlight or just what I know exists.

BFB 3000 – by Bits from Bytes,  UK (owned by 3D Systems)

Build size (x-y-z):

Single extruder installed 275 mm x 275 mm x 210 mm,

Three extruders installed 185 mm x 275 mm x 210 mm

Overall weight: 79lbs to 84lbs

Resolution: .125mm layers

Software interface: Axon 2 which is unique to BFB. This interface allows you to scale, rotate and review your item before print if connected through USB. Will also print directly through SD card reader.

Tested in zero gravity: check

Price:  $3250 for single extruder, $4065 for triple extruder

Here is an older video of the BFB, before the company was aquired by 3D systems. I chose this one because it highlights all the great features, most notably the translucent material. Also the build specs at the end are helpful. An important factor of this machine which can be seen in the video is the quality and robustness of the parts.  Many of the housings and rails are machined metal making for a sturdier base.



Thing-O-Matic by Makerbot Industries, Brooklyn, NY USA

Overall Size:  300 x 300 x 410 mm (12″ W x 12″ D x 16″ H)

Build size (x-y-z): 96 x 108 mm x 115 mm

Resolution: .125mm layers, 0.4 mm extruder nozzle

Software interface: Replicator G which allows  you to manipulate, scale and create build code from STL format. Via USB or SD card reader. Optional LCD display.

Tested in zero gravity: check

Price:  $1299 without assembly, $2500 preassembled

Considered a hot shot of the desktop FDMers,  Makerbot is a fairly new open source project based on Reprap. Although you could probably build a Reprap mendel for less than half that of the Thing-O-Matic, I find no major difference between the two other than how they are marketed. Reprap is a research project funded by grants. Makerbot is a company funded by selling machines. But with Makerbot comes a vibrant community of makers, hackers, and builders, freely showcasing their prints via Thingiverse. Because files can be downloaded as STL or in gcode, they are printable to all reprap based printers.


UP! by PP3DP

Build Size: 245 x 260 x 350 mm

Overall weight: 11 lbs

Software Interface: Supporting STL and the native UP3, the Up! has a specially designed interface that allows for the usual rotating, scaling and moving. Some great features include automatic support material for rounded bottoms or overhang and one touch printing.

Resplution: 0.2 mm nozzle

Operating Cost: As little as $.02 per cubed cm

Cost: $2960 for a fully assembled machine



This one of the newest machines in the market and will likely give Makerbot a run. This promo video is well made and highlights the clever design. The build area is completely open and the hardware and motors are mostly hidden. The fact that it weighs 11 pounds really shows the thinking that went into making a printer that will really sit on a desktop. No mention of build speed but surely no chance against the hot new contender.


Ultimaker, The Netherlands

Build Size: 210 mm x 210 mm x 220 mm, no

Overall Size: 350 mm x 350 mm

Weight: 19 lbs

Software Interface: Libre CAD software, supports STL files via USB. Software available for Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems.

Resolution: 0.4 mm nozzle. Website specs say it has stepper positioning to be less than .05mm

Print Speed: The fastest of anything yet, up to 150mm/s



They don’t really have a promotional video it seems, so I snagged this user submission. The speeds seem to be set to moderate but the mechanized movements are much more fluid. This is achieved because the extruder slides along center based bearings as opposed to threading that is active on the outside frame. From the videos I have seen, when tested at top speed, the print resolution is very poor, which is to be expected.

What I find amazing about the machines mentioned so far is that they are all competing, yet utilizing the exact same technology. Being based on RepRap limits the hardware and materials for a printer that can be sold in quantities.  They all print in PLA or ABS, they all have the same range of print resolution and build size, and they all can really only appeal to the tech savvy. The UP! says it requires no maintenance and this seems promising but I think this is only because the hardware is not exposed. Even the pre-assembled Makerbot requires calibration and setup.

This is really the beginning of the desktop fabrication era, and I am always excited to see the work coming off these machines. But I have yet to see a machine with a minimal learning curve to be used by all. A major area which needs improvement is interface design and usability, and breakthroughs in this area are very near. In terms of materials and build techniques, it may just be a matter of researching what works (two of the projects mentioned below are steps in the right direction). When we get into learning about the high end machines, we will see that each company really has patents on a particular build method. . This is what I hope to see emerge in the desktop market, but some people will need to be weaned off RepRap, as amazing as it is.

I have yet to decide which printer to add to my wish list, because the various features are useful in different situations. If I were looking to achieve detailed and complex prototypes I would choose the BFB 3000 as the multiple extruder heads create more options. If I were looking for a usable machine that showcases the amazing ability of desktop manufacturing I would choose the UP!. It was clearly designed with beginners in mind and the open build platform lets you see every aspect of the process, which is an important factor in attracting new users.

Other Notable Machines:

RepRap Mondo

Basic machine with a build size of 305mm x 460mm x 280

Homemade High Resolution Printer:

This is a personal project still being developed.  The build technique is quite different from every other machine mentioned here. It is not fused deposition modeling but a resin curing system. The object is pulled out of a small reservoir, being cured by focused light as it emerges. The only way to really understand it is to watch.



To see more about this project, especially the resolution photos, check

World’s Smallest 3D printerresearch being conducted at Vienna Tech

How about printing a nanobot chip to go in your brain?

Next we will get into high powered commercial printers, which is where the real magic happens.

Printer Matchup

The 3D printing world has seen many innovations in the past few weeks, highlighting the range of applications. Probably the most publicized piece of news is the successful flights of an unmanned aerial vehicle, or UAV, that can be 3D printed for snap fit assembly. It reaches speeds over 100mph and is nearly silent. Not only does this signal to the amazing possibilities to the commercial aircraft industry, but military and rescue teams could easily survey an area by creating one on demand instead of waiting for supplies. Or what if a rover on another planet could print one out to map the area?

This too will soon be possible as a new company called Made in Space has successfully tested a number of printers in near zero gravity. Most likely it will be used by astronauts and the International Space Station to print out tools and replacement parts instead of waiting for the mail to come.

From Made in Space

What I find interesting about this zero gravity test is the type of printer that they used. A partner in this project is 3D Systems, an industry giant that produces various printers and services. The BFB 3000 is their entry level machine and the one they decided to highlight of several printers on this flight. I believe they created a wrench out of plastic (no moving parts this time). The success of their most basic machine gives only a small idea of what a more powerful printer could produce. It’s easy to print a basic part of that little machine but what about more complex geometries. Portability is not everything, especially since zero gravity means everything weighs nothing.

BFB 3000 from 3D Systems

Here on earth there are more than a handful of machines that can  put the BFB 3000 to shame in areas like build time, materials supported, product rigidity, printer resolution, and so on. They only catch is they weigh probably ten times as much and cost up to twenty times as much.

My goal this week is to have a 3D print off. I will be gathering information from the websites of printer producers as well as private services to compare abilities and limitations of some machines out there. Categorizing them by size will make for fair fights and pricing is generally a function of this. I will do my best to get accurate prices but most companies do no list prices on their public websites.

Up next… the lightweights! Stay tuned.

Amazing examples of 3DP

*Note about Makerbot: This product is a derivative of the Reprap, a project that has been researching ways to make self-replicating machines. I can download a manual to print half the plastic parts from my friend’s Reprap, then go to the hardware store/internet for the other half. Whole machine can be $500. But Makerbot and Reprap are two separate undertakings run by separate people. Both are open source, Makerbot just made its own version and sells it. The machine Reprap originally produced can be viewed here.

On the photos. From this collection alone you can see the range of what some printers can do.

Repraps and Makerbots use a more basic technique called additive layering. In this case a precise plastic melting head, called an extruder, is moved by small gears and motors (It could also be a moving platform with stationary extruder head, but it is easier if I imagine the head).  The movements of the head are given by computer and are specific to the thing I am building.

The flyswatter was made on a Makerbot. The striations inside the body of the fly are created by a .50mm nozzle that moved up and down the shape creating the striped look. Along with the movement commands, the extruder is told where to melt the plastic and where to leave empty spaces.

That’s pretty complex in my mind, but an even more advanced method called selective laser sintering can create high levels of detail, like shapes in the second two photos.

Before I really explain what it does, keep in mind the method of layering . When creating the bunny on the makerbot the computer decided to build from the very bottom up. It makes sense this way since the ears have to sit on top of the head and so on.

This limits the Makerbot to layering the plastic on top of the previous layer of plastic (for the most part).The ring could not be printed on a Makerbot because the plastic being melted out to form the web would just fall to the platform.

Selective Laser Sintering, or SLS,  layers supportive material as it builds. Take this analogy. I have a glass box in which I need to build a tower of marbles. I try to stack the marbles but they fall. To stack the marbles into a tower I can use sand. Put the first layer of marbles into position, then fill the box with sand to cover that layer over. This creates a new platform on which to build the next layers.

SLS uses this to a much more precise and microscopic degree. These layers are a tenth of a millimeter and the sand is really a fine powder. It is still contained in a box and the machine lays the powder before each layer of material.

Imagine what you can do if you are not limited by the type of material… More on that.